In most cases, including cis-men who have sex with men, male (Pregnant) fertilization is not possible. New research into uterine transplants may mean male pregnancies are possible in the future.
In this article, we will discuss the difference between gender and gender before explaining more about transgender and male pregnancy.
Is It Possible?
Anyone who has a uterus and ovaries can become pregnant and give birth to a child.
People who are born male and live as male cannot conceive. However, a transgender man or non-binary person may be able to.
A person can become pregnant only if he has a uterus. The uterus is the womb, where the fetus develops. The male reproductive organs include the testicles and penis, but not the uterus.
The terms “male” and “female” refer to a person’s sex, which includes the socially constructed characteristics that distinguish the traditional binary genders – male and female.
Unlike a person’s biological sex, which is defined by a person’s reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics, genetics alone do not determine a person’s sex.
A person’s gender may include specific social roles, norms, and expectations that differentiate between men and women.
These characteristics are subjective, and they vary across societies, social classes, and cultures. The gender with which a person identifies depends on the individual.
Gender is much more fluid than biological sex.
Generally, people are assigned male or female at birth. People who identify with the gender that society associates with their biological sex are “cisgender” men and women.
Cisgender men who have sex with cisgender men cannot get pregnant.
However, not everyone identifies with the gender role associated with their assigned gender. For example, a person who was assigned female at birth (AFAB) but identifies as male may call themselves a “transgender” male or gender nonconforming individual.
Many AFAB people who identify as male or gender nonconforming retain their ovaries and uterus, allowing them to conceive and give birth.
People With a Uterus and Ovaries
People who have a uterus and ovaries can get pregnant and give birth.
However, some AFAB people can take testosterone. Testosterone therapy helps suppress the effects of estrogen while stimulating the development of male secondary sex characteristics, including:
- muscle growth
- deeper voice
- increased hair growth on the body and face
- redistribution of body fat
Research shows that menstruation usually stops within 12 months and often within 6 months of starting testosterone therapy, which can make getting pregnant more difficult but not impossible.
Although testosterone therapy does not make people infertile, a person may be more likely to develop placental abruption, premature labor, anemia, and high blood pressure.
In a 2014 study, researchers surveyed 41 transgender men and AFAB gender-nonconforming individuals who became pregnant and gave birth.
Among men who reported using testosterone before pregnancy, 20 percent became pregnant before their periods returned.
The authors of this study concluded that prior testosterone use did not make a significant difference in pregnancy, birth, or birth outcomes.
The authors also noted that transgender men reporting previous testosterone use had a higher percentage of cesarean deliveries than those with no history of testosterone use.
These findings do not suggest that testosterone therapy makes people unable to deliver vaginally, as 25% of transgender men who had a cesarean delivery chose to do so based on their comfort level and preferences.
However, there is limited research on transgender pregnancy, so it is unclear how testosterone can affect a person’s fertility or pregnancy.
In a 2019 case study, researchers documented the experience of a 20-year-old transgender man who became pregnant 2 months after stopping testosterone therapy.
After 40 weeks, she gave birth to a healthy baby boy after an uncomplicated labor.
She breastfed for 12 weeks before resuming testosterone therapy, the authors reported.
People who have had a bilateral mastectomy or other breast surgery cannot breastfeed.
Transgender men and AFAB individuals who do not identify as female may choose to undergo a number of medical treatments and surgical procedures during the transition process.
Examples of gender-affirming surgical procedures for transgender men include:
- Male breast reduction or “top surgery”: This procedure involves the removal of both breasts and any underlying breast tissue.
- Hysterectomy: Hysterectomy refers to the removal of the female internal reproductive organs, including the ovaries and uterus.
- Phalloplasty: During this procedure, a surgeon creates a new penis from a skin graft.
- Metoidioplasty: This treatment uses a combination of surgery and hormone therapy to enlarge the clitoris and make it function more like a penis.
If a person has undergone a partial hysterectomy — which involves removing the uterus but not the ovaries, cervix, and fallopian tubes — it’s possible for a fertilized egg to implant in the fallopian tubes or abdomen, resulting in an ectopic pregnancy. happens.
However, it is extremely rare, and according to a 2015 review, there are only 71 cases on record since 1895.